lunedì 26 luglio 2021

Victorian Houses: the Major Architectural Styles (part 2)

 


And here we are dealing again with the topic of the charming Victorian mansions that made the XIXth century so enchanting in the world of the British culture.
Let's have a look, then, to the other architectural styles which made that period so fascinating even in the building design. 



THE SECOND EMPIRE STYLE ~



The architectural style called Second Empire takes its name from the French historical period (1852-1870) which is placed under the reign of Napoleon III who widely promoted its flowering in Paris and throughout France. The most easily identifiable feature was the use of mansard roofs to wrap the floors above the roof line, often covered with iron and adorned with lightning rods. It is therefore a late Victorian style with pediments and columns not protruding much from the building, without prominent arcades. Consequently the constructions looked like a solid mass with many details cut in relief. Columns were rarely more than one floor high, but they were often stacked, one above the other, like layers of a wedding cake; the gutters were not so impressive and the cornices could be rounded.
The mansard roof had a revival after the Second World War, but the houses of that period were more reminiscent of Norman or Provençal ones.




THE ITALIANATE STYLE ~



The Italianate style, which was inspired by Italian Renaissance buildings, was born in Great Britain around 1802 thanks to John Nash who built Cronkhill in Shropshire, a small country house that is generally recognized as the first Italian villa in England and from which derives the Italian architecture of the late regency and the beginning of the Victorian era. This architectural style was further developed and popularized by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s and was not confined to England, but, in different forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, was extended to all the Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840 until the 1890 it eventually achieved enormous popularity in the United States where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. The builders loved the Italianate style because this type of architecture knew no class boundaries: if it is true that the tall square towers made the style a natural choice for the luxury homes of the new rich, it is also true that the brackets and other architectural details, made accessible by new methods for machine production, could easily be used even for simple cottages.
Historians claim that the Italian style became the preferred style for two reasons: these houses could be built with many different materials and the style could be adapted to modest budgets and furthermore the new technologies of the Victorian era made possible the quick and convenient production of decorations made of cast iron and pressed metal.
The most common features of the Italianate buildings were the following: a balanced and symmetrical rectangular shape with a low and flat roof; a tall aspect, with two, three or four floors; wide overhanging eaves with ornamental brackets and cornices; a square cupola; a portico surmounted by balustraded balconies; tall, narrow, paired, often arched windows with protruding moldings above them; a lateral bay window, often two floors high; strongly patterned double doors.
The Italianate style remained the preferred architectural style in the United States until 1870, when the civil war slowed the progress of construction.




THE TUDOR REVIVAL STYLE ~



The Tudor Revival style (called in England: Mock Tudor), also known as Neotudorian, is an architectural style used mainly in the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century and based essentially on the Tudor style or, more frequently, on the English vernacular architecture of the medieval times which also survived during the Tudor period.
This style was the natural reaction to the ornate Victorian Neo-Gothic architecture that characterized the second half of the 19th century. It, rejecting the mass productions introduced by the industry of the time, in accordance with what the Arts and Crafts movement advocated, derived aspects of Tudor, Elizabethan and Jacobite architecture.
Thus imitating medieval cottages and country houses, this style was characterized by the external use of timber and the supporting structure made of brick or stone, by imposing and raised chimneys, by windows with very high mullioned windows and porches with wooden pillars.
Only at the end of the 19th century did the Tudor Revival style come to influence American architectural taste. 





In the hope you've enjoyed the second part of this topic too, 
I'm sending all my best to you,
with utmost gratitude

See you soon ❤









Le residenze vittoriane ~

 I principali stili architettonici (parte seconda)



- immagine 1 - Casa tipicamente vittoriana


E rieccoci a trattare delle affascinanti residenze vittoriane che hanno reso così incantevole il XIX° secolo nel mondo della cultura britannica. Diamo quindi un'occhiata agli altri stili architettonici che hanno fatto di quel periodo un'epoca così affascinante anche dal punto di vista del 'design' degli edifici.



~ LO STILE 'SECONDO IMPERO' ~


- immagine 2 - Schema delle caratteristiche dello stile 'Secondo Impero'


Lo stile architettonico denominato Secondo Impero mutua il proprio nome dal periodo storico francese  che va dal 1852 al 1870 e che si colloca sotto il regno di Napoleone III il quale ne promosse largamente la fioritura a Parigi ed in tutta la Francia. La caratteristica più facilmente identificabile era l'uso di tetti mansardati per avvolgere i piani superiori alla linea del tetto, spesso ricoperti di ferro ed ornati da parafulmini. È quindi uno stile tardo vittoriano con frontoni e colonne che non sporgevano molto dall'edificio, senza portici prominenti. Di conseguenza le costruzioni sembravano una massa solida con molti dettagli tagliati in rilievo. Le colonne erano raramente alte più di un piano, ma spesso erano impilate, una sopra l'altra, come strati di una torta nuziale; le grondaie non erano così imponenti ed il cornicione poteva essere arrotondato.
Il tetto a mansarda ebbe una rinascita dopo la seconda guerra mondiale, ma le case di quel periodo ricordavano più quelle normanne o provenzali.


- immagine 3 - Esempi di residenze vittoriane in stile 'Secondo Impero'



~ LO STILE 'ALL'ITALIANA' ~


- immagine 4 - Schema delle caratteristiche dello stile 'Italianeggiante'


Lo stile all'italiana, che prendeva spunto dagli edifici italiani rinascimentali, nacque in Gran Bretagna intorno al 1802 grazie a John Nash che edificò Cronkhill nello Shropshire, una piccola casa di campagna che è generalmente riconosciuta come la prima villa all'italiana in Inghilterra e da cui deriva l'architettura all'italiana della tarda reggenza e dell'inizio dell'era vittoriana. Questo stile architettonico fu ulteriormente sviluppato e reso popolare dall'architetto Sir Charles Barry negli anni '30 dell'Ottocento e non si limitò ai confini dell’Inghilterra, ma in forme diverse, molto tempo dopo il suo declino di popolarità in Gran Bretagna, si estese a tutto il Nord Europa e nell'Impero britannico. Dalla fine degli anni 1840 fino al 1890 raggiunse infine un'enorme popolarità negli Stati Uniti dove fu promosso dall'architetto Alexander Jackson Davis. I costruttori amavano lo stile all'italiana perché questo tipo di architettura non conosceva confini di classe: se è vero che le alte torri quadrate rendevano lo stile una scelta naturale per le case di lusso dei nuovi ricchi, è altresì vero che le mensole decorative in stucco e altri dettagli dell'architettura, resi accessibili da nuovi metodi per la produzione in serie, potevano essere facilmente utilizzati anche per semplici cottages.
Gli storici affermano che quello all'italiana divenne lo stile preferito per due ragioni: le case all'italiana potevano essere costruite con molti materiali differenti e lo stile poteva essere adattato a budget modesti ed inoltre le nuove tecnologie dell'era vittoriana rendevano possibile la produzione rapida e conveniente di decorazioni in ghisa e metallo pressato.
Quello all’italiana rimase lo stile architettonico preferito negli Stati Uniti fino al 1870, quando la guerra civile frenò il progresso della costruzione.
Le caratteristiche più comuni degli edifici all’italiana erano le seguenti: una forma rettangolare equilibrata e simmetrica con un tetto basso e piatto; un aspetto alto, con due, tre o quattro piani; ampia gronda aggettante con mensole ornamentali e cornicioni; una cupola quadrata; un portico sormontato da balconi balaustrati; finestre alte, strette, accoppiate, spesso ad arco con modanature sporgenti sopra le finestre; un bow-window laterale, spesso alto due piani; doppie porte fortemente modellate.


- immagine 5 - Esempi di residenze vittoriane in stile 'Italianeggiante'

 

~ LO STILE 'TUDOR REVIVAL' ~


- immagine 6 - Schema delle caratteristiche dello stile 'Tudor Revival'


Lo stile Tudor Revival (chiamato in Inghilterra: Mock Tudor), noto anche come Neotudoriano, è uno stile architettonico utilizzato soprattutto nel Regno Unito a partire dalla metà del XIX secolo e basato essenzialmente sullo Stile Tudor o, più di frequente, sull'architettura vernacolare inglese del medioevo che sopravvisse anche durante il periodo Tudor.
Tale stile fu la naturale reazione all'ornata architettura del Neogotico vittoriano che caratterizzò la seconda metà del XIX secolo. Esso, rigettando le produzioni di massa introdotte dall'industria dell'epoca,  in accordo con quanto propugnava il movimento Arts and Crafts, derivò aspetti dell'architettura Tudor, Elisabettiana e Giacobita.
Imitando così i cottages medievali e le case di campagna, questo stile era caratterizzato dall'utilizzo esterno del legname e dalla struttura portante realizzata in mattoni o pietra, da fumaioli imponenti e rialzati, da finestre con bifore molto alte e portici con pilastri in legno. 
Solamente sul finire del XIX° secolo lo stile Tudor Revival giunse ad influenzare il gusto architettonico americano.


- immagine 7 - Esempi di residenze vittoriane in stile 'Tudor Revival'




 Nella speranza di avervi intrattenuti piacevolmente 
anche con la seconda parte di questo argomento, 
vi abbraccio con tutto il cuore e con immensa gratitudine
e vi aspetto per il nostro prossimo appuntamento

A presto ❤








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34 commenti:

  1. Why, I wouldn't say no to spending my days in any one of these architectural gems. They are all very grand! I cannot choose a favourite, though if push comes to shove, I rather love the bottom right hand corner, American Tudor Revival house. The stuff of dreams. I guess I will just have to be thankful for my rather little, humble abode.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Kim
      Dearest friend of mine, you’re a bright light!
      I also love the Tudor Revival of the Victorian times, it really charmes me; actually I love the original Tudor architecture, but for my taste the Victorian Revival is even more romantic!
      Your lovely comments are always so precious to me and yours from today is such a nice way to start my week, thank you!
      Hugs and ever much love to you ಌ•❤•ಌ

      Elimina
  2. what a craftsmanship. how's that compared with glass claddings of modern buildings.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. klara
      sweet friend of mine, so here you are, just as you promised in your comment posted at the bottom of the first part of this 'trip' of ours within Victorian architecture!
      Thank you for gracing my blog today too and I hope to welcome you here again and again :)
      Wishing you a joy-filled week ❥

      Elimina
  3. They are most beautiful. They have such personalities too.

    Thank you for joining the Awww Mondays Blog Hop.

    Have a fabulous Awww Monday and week. ♥

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Sandee
      thank you for visiting and for leaving such a delightful comment, dear friend!
      May your days to come be blessed with Joy ❀≼♥≽❀

      Elimina
  4. My favorite style is the Tudor style- altho- I would not mind living in any of these lovely homes! I imagine that it took a lot more time building these homes than what are built today! Have a great week and thanks for visiting!!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Kathe W.
      it is I who thank you for gracing my Blog today!
      For sure, as you write, during the Victorian Age for building a house it was necessary skilness and competence, that was almost an art involving many people able in different fields and requiring a lot of time.
      Today building too is faster than once, but I think that modern houses are less durable and confortable than the old ones.
      And nowadays is quite rare to see new houses so charming, isn't it?
      Wishing you a love-filled and sunny day ஜ~Ƹ̴Ӂ̴Ʒ~ஜ

      Elimina
  5. I do enjoy seeing the skills and workmanship of the Victorian era. very enjoyable post.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Fun60
      Thank you for visiting and for leaving such a delightful comment, sweet friend.
      I want you to know that I've just visited your wonderful Blog and I wanted to become a new follower of yours, but I've seen that I'm already following you!
      I don't know why I don't receive any update when you publish your posts...
      Anyway, thank you once again ✿⊱╮

      Elimina
  6. I have seen many of the Italian style in the town I grew up in, there aren't as many in this area, usually can find them in the old towns in the section that was first made. My father in law built a tudor style for one of his homes, it was so pretty inside and out.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Conniecrafter
      I can just imagine how lovely your father-in-law's Tudor home was: you're right, this style has details so very precious inside and out, which make homes so romantic outside and create such a warm atmosphere inside, even with a little of forniture!
      I heartily thank you for being so supportive
      ♥.• and hope your week is as beautiful as you, Dearie•.♥

      Elimina
  7. You have taught me so much, thank you. These are all beautiful!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. messymimi
      thanks for commenting, I'm so glad you enjoyed it, sweet friend!
      Blessings being sent on your way ༺❀༻

      Elimina
  8. "The mansard roof had a revival after the Second World War, but the houses of that period were more reminiscent of Norman or Provençal ones."

    Wow, Daniela!

    Yes - they would be that reminiscient.

    I do not know that Provençal and Norman ones would have different except for the region and the time.

    Will be wanting to catch up from last week to read more.

    I had only really known about the Arts-and-Crafts type houses and a very little bit about the Italianate.

    You and Kathe make a good observation about late 20th and 21st century buildings.

    Thinking of Poundbury - Prince Charles' development as part of his Duchy of Cornwall.

    Fit for a king - from Nine Publishing

    And when I think of the gutters and the flooding in Europe the last few days and weeks ...

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Adelaide Dupont
      I welcome you with a big hugh, I so appreciate your visits and your kind words.
      If you want to read the first part of this post, it was published on July 5th: just have to click HERE.
      Thanks most sincerely ♥♡♥

      Elimina
    2. Again - I appreciate the (((hug))), Daniela.

      Thank you to the 5 July pointer.

      [I had worked out - more or less - that it was not last week!]

      Elimina
    3. Adelaide Dupont
      And then I'm sending you a hug again!

      Elimina
  9. Risposte
    1. Deb Nance at Readerbuzz
      thanks for stopping by and for leaving a comment filled with enthusiasm, it really makes my heart sing!
      Blessed be ღ✿ღ

      Elimina
  10. So beautiful. They don't make houses like this very often anymore.

    Thank you for joining the Wordless Wednesday Blog Hop.

    Have a fabulous Wordless Wednesday. Love and hugs. ♥

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Sandee
      you're right, my sweet Lady, and with all the manpower and skilness that would be required, I can only imagine how much would they cost!
      In the hope your week is off to a great start,
      I'm sending love, hugs and smiles ∗⊱༺♡❀♡༻⊰∗

      Elimina
  11. Stupenda anche questa seconda parte, appassionante lettura e ti dirò che lo stile "Secondo Impero" mi ricorda tanto "casa stile Halloween" :)!
    Lietissima serata,
    Franca

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Franca
      Sai quanto siano importanti per me le tue visite e le tue parole!
      Quanto alle case in stile "Secondo Impero" hai ragione, mia cara...forse è questo lo stile che preferisci?
      Con un forte abbraccio ti auguro una splendida giornata •♥•♥•

      Elimina
  12. I think if I had to choose one to live in, it would be tudor (mock Tudor) -- there is something about the warmth of the wood that I really like. I appreciate your detailed descriptions and the differences in style you share. I don't know quite what style the cottages at Oak Bluffs Campground in Martha's Vineyard fit (here's the url to the google images page) but I like these too. Definitely NOT mock Tudor! https://www.google.com/search?q=oak+bluffs+campground&client=firefox-b-1-d&sxsrf=ALeKk03w1PWQRG7TCP6i_Gohd1lrrA2l_A:1627511882654&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwie6Yed6obyAhVZAp0JHQqfDMcQ_AUoAnoECAEQBA&biw=1366&bih=595

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Jeanie
      Yes, just the warmth of the wood is the reason why I also love the "Tudor Revival" so much!
      We've already talked about the Oak Bluffs Campground on Martha's Vineyard, thanks to a reader's comment-whose name was Jeanie like yours-in the first part of this post: these buildings date back to the late Victorian age and for sure have been built according to one of the styles we took in exam, probably the "Stick Style" for which was used only wood and pastel colors for the walls and the details.
      If you're interested in reading it too, it was published on July 5th.
      Thanking you for being always so supportive,
      I wish you a joy-filled remainder of your week ⊰✽*✽⊱

      Elimina
  13. Thank you for the architecture lecture; as an inveterate reader, I can now picture in my mind, the details of these houses. I can also appreciate them when I see them in urban areas in Maine where ship captains and logging barons, especially, built these kinds of houses!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Kathy
      It is I who thank you, it's a pleasure and a privilege to have you here and I'm sincerely glad you liked the topic of this article!
      Cheers ♡❤♡

      Elimina
  14. Risposte
    1. Amalia
      Thanks for commenting, I'm so glad you enjoyed it, lovely Lady!
      I hope your day is filled with many little things
      which to feel joy for ಌ❀ಌ

      Elimina
  15. Interesting post. I think the Tudor style looks the most inviting.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Linda
      I must say that the "Tudor Revival" style is the one you like most, and it's my favorite, as well!
      Enjoy the remainder of your week with gladness ❥

      Elimina
  16. ...beautiful buildings, thanks for sharing.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. Tom
      Thanks for popping by ~ My little old world ~ and for writing such nice words of appreciation!
      I hope the week just begun might bring much joy to you,
      Sweet Friend ✿⊱╮

      Elimina

I THANK YOU WHOLEHEARTEDLY FOR YOUR THOUGHTS AND WORDS, SO PRECIOUS TO ME.