giovedì 1 febbraio 2018

This engine was a monster to Dickens, but it saved countless lives of Londoners.

"What a monster! 
Imagine an enormous see-saw, with a steam engine at one end, and a pump at the other…" 


When in April 1850 Charles Dickens fund himself visiting the place called at the time Kew Pumping Station where a huge hydraulic pump, the GRAND JUNCTION 90 INCH ENGINE, had been placed two years before (it was built in 1846 by Sandys, Carne & Vivian of the Copperhouse Foundry of Hayle, in Cornwall and wa the first engine made specifically for the service of the waterworks ) he felt impressed by the enormity of the engine - which is still the largest functioning today -, from the noise that it produced and still not used to see where the technological progress, that was taking its very first steps, was able to lead us, he wrote on the weekly journal that he founded the same year and conducted, named Household Words, in the issue of the 13th, what we're going to read:


My excellent and eloquent friend, Lyttleton, of Pump Court, Temple, barrister-at- aw, disturbed me on a damp morning at the end of last month, to bespeak my company to a meeting at which he intended to hold forth. ‘It is, he said, ‘the Great Water Supply Congress, which assembles to—morrow.’
‘Do you know anything of the subject?’
‘A vast deal both practically and theoretically. Practically, I pay for my little box in the Regent’s Park, twice the rice for water our friend Fielding is chargeed, and both supplies are derived from the same Company.
Yet his is a mansion, mine is a cottage; his rent more than doubles mine in amount, and his family trebles mine in number. So much for the consistency and exactions of an irresponsible monopoly. Practically, again, there are occasions when my cisterns are without water. So much for deficient supply.’
‘ Is your water bad?’
‘Not absolutely unwholesome; but I have drunk better.’

Showing to be well prepared about this topic, Lyttleton began with his speech:

[...] of the 300,000 houses of which London is said to consist, 70,000 are without the great element of suction and cleanliness; I find also that the supply, such as it is, is derived from nine water companies all linked together to form a giant monopoly; and that, in consequence, the charge for water is in some instances excessive; that six of these companies draw their water from the filthy Thames;—and the same number, including those which use the Lea and New River water, have no system of filtration—hence it is unwholesome: that in short, the public of the metropolis are the victims of dear, insufficient and dirty water.

Dickens then suggests to his friend a visit to Kew Bridge, where the Kew Pumping Station was located and where in 1848 the GREAT JUNCTION 90-inch engine was installed which distributes the water monopolized by the above mentioned nine companies.

Reached Kew Bridge,

Dickens shows his friend what was the exact point in which the Grand Junction Waterworks Company drew water, that is from the river bed, but not before filtering it through a wide and dense network located on the mouth of the suction pipe capable of retain all the solid substances that flowed in the waters of the river as the origin of their unhealthy, because even if the purified water is almost completely tasteless on the palate, it is also completely deprived of pathogenic elements, a source of even serious diseases.
In a second time the water, after being sucked, is pumped by the GRAND JUNCTION 90 INCH ENGINE into a 3 acres and 1/2 filtering basin and left to deposit so that even the elements such as sand, earth, clay, drains of gutters, soaps, etc. remain on the bottom and therefore the liquid thus obtained is completely pure and crystalline - and it will be this filtering system, in fact, to prevent the sporadic cases of cholera that at the time were widespread among the population, probably among the less wealthy that couldn't afford running and completely clear water, didn't degenerate into an epidemic.

 [...] our water is passed afterwards into the filtering bed, which is four feet thick.’
‘How do you make up this enormous bed?’
‘The water rests upon, and permeates through, 1st, a surface of fine sand; 2d, a stratum of shells; 3d, a layer of garden gravel; and 4th, a base of coarse gravel. It thence falls through a number of ducts into cisterns, whence it is pumped up so as to commence its travels to town through the conduit pipe.’

The engineer superintendent at the machines that Dickens and his friend Lyttleton were going to see, ensures that the water delivered by the nine companies so thoroughly filtered is completely pure, which cannot be said of that drawn from sources or from the gutter pipes - which were in lead - both collected for domestic use in the countryside and much less for those drawn directly from the rivers; even the one kept in the cisterns in the house, remaining stationary, tends to lose its purity, provided that initially it could boast it: in the smaller houses of London and the surrounding areas, water was in fact drawn by some tanks, often located in the attic, which were filled three times a week, but of course the flow of water was not continuous, that is current, and when they were empty, it was necessary to wait for the new supply.

This mechanism, completely innovative, allowed many people to enjoy the benefits of running water, estimated in about 100 liters per day 'pro-capite', as we will see proceeding with the reading of Dicken's article, except for Sunday, which was the only day when the companies that supplied the water distributed by the GRAND JUNCTION 90 INCH ENGINE did not provide their service, so, to all intents and purposes, it was certainly worth even spending more money to have in your homes the running water, at least  for a question of health.
But Dickens still ignores what a huge device his eyes are going to to see:

[...] What a monster! Imagine an enormous see-saw, with a steam engine at one end, and a pump at the other. Fancy this‘ beam,’ some ten yards long, and twenty eight tons in weight, moving on a pivot in the middle, the ends of which show a circumference greater than the crown of the biggest hat ever' worn. See, with what earnest deliberation the ‘see,’ or engine, pulls up the ‘saw,’ or balance-box of the pump, which then comes down 11 on the water-trap with
the ferocious àplomb of 49 tons, sending 400 gallons of water in one tremendous squirt nearly the twentieth part of a mile high;— that is to the top of the stand-pipe.

The engineer who accompanied Dickens and his friend Lyttleton continues his illustrative speech explaining that the big pump sucks and compresses 11 times a minute thus pumping every 60 seconds 4400 gallons for a supply that goes from 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 gallons of clear water every day.

‘What proportion of London do you 'supply?’ asked Mr. Lyttleton.
‘The quadrangle included between Oxford Street, Wardour Street, Pall-Mall, and Hyde Park; besides the whole of Notting-hill, Bayswater, and Paddington. We serve 14,058 houses, to each of which we supply 225 gallons per day, or, taking the average number of persons per house at nine, 25 gallons a head; besides public services, such as baths, water ing streets, or manufactories; making our total daily delivery at the rate of 252 gallons per house. This delivery is performed through 80 miles of service pipes, whose diameter varies from 3 to 30 inches.’

But do you wonder what did it mean, 80 miles of pipe network, at that time ... not only the pump was something monstrous, but so was the whole Kew Pumping Station and the entire engineering work that had been done with it!

Returning to the GRAND JUNCTION 90 INCH ENGINE, made in Cornwall which at that time boasted a record in the construction of such engines, it was really something monstrous for the times and we can still consider it such today if we think that it continued its work until 1944, without practically stopping, and it was so powerful that it had the ability to pump water to the upper floors of buildings, which encouraged the 'growth' of London upwards, ie the construction of buildings with more floors, especially in residential areas.

Today we can still observe it, with request, in function, at what was then the Kew Pumping Station, which in recent times has become the London Museum of Water and Steam.

Ah, I forgot to tell you that eventually, persuaded by what he had seen with his own eyes and heard with his own ears, the skeptical Lyttleton really had to rewrite his own speech for the conference which had to be held the very day after!

And arrived at the end of today's story, taken from the chronicles of 1850,

I hug you with love,

thanking you as always for having followed me up to here,

see you soon 💕


"Che mostro!
Immaginate un'enorme altalena, con un motore a vapore ad un'estremità ed una pompa all'altra ... "


Quando nell'aprile del 1850 Charles Dickens si trovò a visitare il locale chiamato al tempo Kew Pumping Station in cui era stata posta l'enorme pompa idraulica, il GRAND JUNCTION 90 INCH ENGINE, costruita nel 1846 da Sandys, Carne & Vivian della Copperhouse Foundry di Hayle, in Cornovaglia, primo motore realizzato appositamente per il servizio degli acquedotti, egli, rimasto impressionato dall'enormità del macchinario - che è tutt'oggi il più grande motore ad asta funzionante -, dal rumore che produceva ed ancora non uso a vedere a cosa potevano in realtà condurre il progresso tecnologico che proprio allora stava compiendo i suoi primi passi, così scrisse sul settimanale da lui fondato quello stesso anno, Household Words, nel numero uscito il giorno 13:


Il mio eccelso ed eloquente amico, Lyttleton, di Pump Court, Temple, avvocato, mi ha scomodato in una umida mattinata alla fine del mese scorso, per assicurarsi la mia compagnia ad una riunione alla quale intendeva partecipare sostenendo la propria idea. "È, ha detto, il grande Congresso sulla fornitura d'acqua, che si riunisce domani."

"Sai qualcosa a tale proposito?"

"E' un grosso affare sia in pratica che in teoria. In pratica pago per la mia piccola cisterna nel Regent's Park il doppio di quanto paga per la sua acqua il nostro amico Fielding, ed entrambe le forniture derivano dalla stessa compagnia.

Eppure la sua è una villa, la mia è un cottage; il suo affitto è più che doppio del mio, e la sua famiglia il triplo della mia. Tutto dovuto alla coerenza e agli introiti di un monopolio irresponsabile. Praticamente, ancora, ci sono occasioni in cui le mie cisterne sono prive di acqua di conseguenza all'offerta carente. '
"La tua acqua è cattiva?"

"Assolutamente non infetta; ma ho bevuto di meglio".

Dimostrando di essere ben preparato sull'argomento, Lyttleton cominciò il suo discorso:

[...] delle 300.000 case di cui Londra si dice consista, 70.000 sono prive del grande elemento di aspirazione e pulizia (ossia di acqua corrente). Trovo anche che l'offerta, così com'è, è derivata da nove compagnie idriche tutte collegate tra loro a formare un monopolio gigante; e che, di conseguenza, la tassa per l'acqua sia in alcuni casi eccessiva; che sei di queste compagnie attingono la loro acqua dal sudicio Tamigi, e lo stesso numero, comprese quelle che usano l'acqua del Lea e del New River, non hanno un sistema di filtraggio - il che non è salutare: in breve, la popolazione della metropoli è vittima di acqua cara, insufficiente e sporca.

Dickens propone quindi al suo amico una visita a Kew Bridge, dove si trovava la Kew Pumping Station e dove nel 1848 era stato installato il GREAT JUNCTION 90-inch engine che distribuisce l'acqua monopolizzata dalle nove compagnie di cui sopra.

Raggiunto Kew Bridge, 

- immagine 2

Dickens mostra all'amico quello che era il punto esatto in cui la Grand Junction Waterworks Company attingeva l'acqua, ossia dal letto del fiume, ma non prima di averla filtrata attraverso una vasta e fitta rete situata sulla bocca del tubo di aspirazione capace di trattenere tutte le sostanze solide che nelle acque del fiume scorrevano quali origine della loro malsanità, perché anche se l'acqua purificata risulta al palato quasi completamente priva si sapore, è anche del tutto privata di elementi patogeni, fonte di malattie anche gravi.

In un secondo tempo l'acqua, dopo essere stata aspirata, viene pompata dal GRAND JUNCTION 90 INCH ENGINE in un bacino di filtraggio che si estende per 3 acri e 1/2 e lasciata depositare affinché anche gli elementi quali sabbia, terra, argilla, scarichi delle grondaie, saponi, etc. rimangano sul fondo e perciò il liquido così ottenuto risulti completamente puro e cristallino - e sarà proprio tale sistema di filtraggio, infatti, ad impedire che gli sporadici casi di colera che al tempo erano diffusi tra la popolazione, probabilmente tra i meno facoltosi che non potevano permettersi di pagare l'acqua corrente e del tutto epurata, non degenerassero in un'epidemia.

[...] la nostra acqua viene passata in seguito nel letto filtrante, spesso quattro piedi".
"Come si fa a costruire questo enorme letto?"
"L'acqua cade a pioggia su di esso ed attraversa, in primo luogo una superficie di sabbia fine; quindi uno strato di conchiglie, poi uno strato di ghiaia da giardino ed infine una base di ghiaia grossolana. Scende allora attraverso un certo numero di condotti nelle cisterne, da dove viene pompata in modo da iniziare i suoi viaggi in città attraverso il condotto della rete idraulica".

L'ingegnere sovrintendente presso i macchinari a cui Dickens ed il suo amico Lyttleton si stavano approssimando garantisce che così filtrata l'acqua erogata dalle nove compagnie è del tutto pura, cosa che non si può dire di quella di sorgente o di quella che proviene dai tubi delle grondaie - che erano in piombo - entrambe raccolte per usi domestici in campagna e tantomeno per quella attinta direttamente dai fiumi; anche quella conservata nelle cisterne in casa, rimanendo ferma, tende a perdere la sua purezza, a patto che inizialmente potesse vantarne: nelle case più piccole di Londra e del circondario l'acqua era infatti attinta da alcune cisterne, spesso situate nel sottotetto, che venivano colmate tre volte la settimana, ma ovviamente il flusso dell'acqua non era continuo, ossia corrente, e quando si svuotavano bisognava attendere la nuova fornitura.

Questo meccanismo, del tutto innovativo, consentiva invece a molte persone di godere dei vantaggi dell'acqua corrente, stimata circa in 100 litri il giorno pro-capite, come vedremo procedendo con la lettura dell'articolo, esclusa la domenica, che era il solo giorno in cui le compagnie che erogavano l'acqua distribuita dal GRAND JUNCTION 90 INCH ENGINE non prestavano servizio, per cui, a tutti gli effetti, valeva sicuramente la pena spendere anche più denaro per avere nelle proprie case l'acqua corrente non fosse altro che per una questione di salute.

Ma Dickens ancora ignora quale enorme congegno sta per presentarsi ai suoi occhi:

[...] Che mostro! Immaginate un'enorme altalena ( N.d.A. - una tavola sospesa con un perno centrale ) con un motore a vapore a un'estremità e una pompa all'altra. Immaginate questo "braccio", lungo circa dieci iarde, e ventotto tonnellate di peso, che si muove su di un perno collocato nel mezzo, le cui estremità mostrano una circonferenza maggiore della corona che persino il più grande copricapo indossato abbia mai avuto. Dovreste vedere con quale agevolezza una parte del braccio, ossia il motore, tira su l'altra parte o scatola della bilancia, che poi scende lungo il sifone con una feroce pressione di 49 tonnellate che invia 400 galloni di acqua in un tremendo getto alto quasi la ventesima parte di un miglio: - questo in cima al tubo di supporto.

L'informatore che accompagnava Dickens e l'amico Lyttleton prosegue il proprio discorso illustrativo spiegando che la grande pompa aspira e comprime 11 volte il minuto pompando così ogni 60 secondi 4400 galloni per una fornitura che va da 4.000.000 a 5.000.000 di galloni di acqua potabile ogni giorno.

"Che porzione di Londra rifornite?", chiese Mr. Lyttleton.

"Il quadrilatero compreso tra Oxford Street, Wardour Street, Pall-Mall e Hyde Park; oltre a Notting Hill, Bayswater e Paddington. Serviamo 14.058 case, a ciascuna delle quali forniamo 225 galloni al giorno, o, facendo conto che il numero medio di persone per ogni casa sia nove, 25 galloni a testa; oltre ai servizi pubblici, quali bagni, lavaggio delle strade o fabbriche mantenendo la nostra erogazione giornaliera totale al ritmo di 252 galloni per casa. Questa distribuzione viene eseguita attraverso 80 miglia di tubi di servizio, il cui diametro varia da 3 a 30 pollici ".

- immagine 3

- immagine 4

- immagine 5

- immagine 6

- immagine 7

Ma ci pensate, 80 miglia di rete di tubi, a quell'epoca ... non solo la pompa era qualcosa di mostruoso, ma lo era anche la Kew Pumping Station e l'intera opera ingegnieristica che con essa era stata realizzata!

Tornando al GRAND JUNCTION 90 INCH ENGINE, realizzato nella Cornovaglia che a quel tempo vantava un primato nella costruzione di macchinari a braccio, esso era realmente qualcosa di mostruoso per i tempi e tale lo possiamo considerare ancora oggi se pensiamo che continuò il suo lavoro fino al 1944, senza praticamente fermarsi mai, ed era così potente tanto da avere la capacità di pompare acqua ai piani superiori degli edifici, cosa che incoraggiò la 'crescita' di Londra verso l'alto, ovvero la costruzione di edifici a più piani, soprattutto nelle zone residenziali.

Oggi lo possiamo ancora osservare, su richiesta, in funzione, presso quella che era allora la Kew Pumping Station, divenuta in epoche recenti il London Museum of Water and Steam.  

Ah, dimenticavo di dirvi che infine, persuaso da ciò che aveva visto con i propri occhi ed udito con le proprie orecchie, lo scettico avvocato Lyttleton dovette davvero di tutta fretta riscrivere il proprio discorso per il convegno del giorno dopo!

E giunti in fondo alla storia di oggi, tratta dalle cronache del 1860, 
vi abbraccio con affetto, 
ringraziandovi come sempre per avermi seguita fino a qui,

a presto 💕

44 commenti:

  1. Just an Italian where do you get this insatiable curiosity for all things English?

    1. @ David Gascoigne
      that's truly an interesting question I was never asked before, and I'm answering you with so much joy: as a teacher in History and phylosophy I'm truly curios and passioneate in everything belonging to the past, but I feel deeply to belong to the Victorian age, which had its most beautiful expression in England, even though in the whole Old Continent it was lived in all its aspects, beautiful and less beautiful ... but all so, so charming to me!
      The thing is that I'd love to deal with Victorian topics ... always ... but I'm truly curios in everything and I think that not all my blog-friends and followers do love this Age, at least as I do, so, occasionally, my articles' subject are sometimes also about the Regency, Edwardian and Georgian period ....
      Maybe once I was a Victorian lady in London, my friend, ... what do you think about it ツ

      Sincerely grateful to you for visiting and for this question I'm truly glad you asked me for,
      ... and for your appreciation for today's topic too
      I'm sending hugs and more hugs to you,
      thank you once again ✿*✿

  2. My goodness, I never knew this, Dany.
    As always, time spent here is so wonderful.
    Thank you, sweet friend.
    Sending you hugs from across the ocean.

    1. @ Lisa Gordon
      Dearest friend of mine, your so beautiful words fill my heart with the deepest joy ever, it is I who thank you !

      With utmosyt gratitude,
      I'm sending blessings on your weekend ahead,
      may it be serene and joy-filled ♡❤♡

  3. Thanks so much for sharing! It's a fascinating read : )

    1. @ Anna of Stuffedveggies
      you're heartily welcome, your nice and kind words bless my day and put a smile on my face!

      Sending gratitude hugs on your way,
      wherever you are ⊰✽*♥*✽⊱

  4. What a complicated process. How cool to know how it was done back in the day.

    Have a fabulous day, Dany. ♥

    1. @ Sandee
      precious friend, I'm so glad to read your words both of interest and of enjoyment, thank you!

      May your day too be fabulous
      and may the end of your week be as Beautiful as you,
      ღ Sweetie ღ

  5. A reminder not to take our clean water in our own homes for granted.

    1. @ Messymimi
      at that time it was truly a privelege, for sure!

      Always thinking of you with love,
      I'm sending you my dearest hug ༺♡❀♡༻

  6. Dear Danny, I always love to read Dicken's observations---he pops up in history books so often as most of his papers and journals of his travels reached print. This is quite interesting, as we take 'fresh' water for granted now-a-days, while it was a luxury for large cities in the 19th century.

    Dicken's papers on transportation in the United States during the 1830-40's are hilarious, as we were such a raucous, uncouth, land of varmints passing as people. Very fun post!

    1. @ BarberryLane Designs
      you're right, Dearie, and I'm so gratefult to you for this comment of yours, your observation about what Dickens saw and wrote in the newspapers, his and not only, with precision and often with irony, helps us who love to depict a detailed picture of the Victorian Age!
      And most of us are used to think of him as a novelist, but he was such a keen observer and vivacius journalist too, thank you for having underlined it!

      Sending all my love to you,
      sweet Sandi,
      with sincere thankfulness ❥

  7. Dany, you are a wonderful historian and we are all so lucky that you share what you know, always fascinating! wishing you wellness and wonderfulness for the month of february! xoxo

    1. @ Michele
      you're so generous with me, dear friend, your words of praise puzzle me :) ....

      ⊰♥⊱ MUCH LOVE ⊰♥⊱

  8. Cara Dany, ho fatto leggere il tuo post al mio ingegnere meccanico che ha apprezzato molto!
    Eccoci di nuovo a venerdì, ventoso e piovoso a sprazzi. Ti auguro un buon fine settimana

    1. @ Susanna
      se hai con te un ingegniere meccanico immagino che la lettura lo abbia intrigato davvero, i primi passi mossi dal progresso sono sempre ancora più interessanti per chi appartiene al settore!

      E' sempre una gioia grande averti qui, mia dolce,
      ed inviandoti un forte abbraccio, colmo di affetto e riconoscenza,
      ti auguro una lieta serata ed un weekend colmo di serenità ಌ•❤•ಌ

  9. I constantly marvel at the genius of those whose talents include innovation and invention! I just cannot comprehend it all! Thank you and wishing you a wonderful weekend!

    1. @ Cathy Keller
      I heartily thank you for gracing my blog today, dearets friend, both with you presence and with your nice and kind words!

      Sending blessings of joy on your weekend to come ✿⊱╮

  10. Very interesting, it is amazing that more people did not get sick when they first started the water system. It is amazing how much machinery it takes just to deliver our water. In our area of the states we have had many water main breaks because the water companies have not replaced the old pipes in so long so they are now replacing as the break which is making quite a mess for people. We even had to have a boil order because of the many breaks in our area, so we went out and bought a lot of bottled water. We all too often take for granted the wonderful inventions that have come over the years. Wishing you a wonderful weekend!

    1. @ Conniecrafter
      so you still had to live discomforts in recent years just for having fresh water in your homes ...
      I'm so glad that you enjoyed this topic too, darling friend, thank you for being so supportive and kind, I so love reading your comments, they always put a smile on my face!

      May your new week to come be as Beautiful as you,
      and may your days be filled with so many little things which to be glad for ♡ஐ♡

  11. What an interesting story, Dany, and a fascinating machine. When we think about all we take for granted today, and then think about the struggle of inventors to make it all happen it is mind boggling!

    I wanted to tell you that when my husband and I visited Italy last summer we stayed almost all the time with my husband's relatives. He has many aunts and uncles and cousins throughout Italy, and our trip was spent visiting them, as many are elderly and we wanted to see them one more time. I would have loved to meet you, but I knew we did not have the time this trip. Hopefully next time we visit Italy we can meet? That would be wonderful! Meanwhile I hope you enjoy my memories of my trip on my blog.


    1. @ Pat
      you're right, Dearest Friend of mine, that's why I thought it was worth telling you this story, since I thought it to be curious and interesting especially if we think how much back in time it takes us!
      All inventions are so interestings, expecially those we don't think about today, giving for granted everything which make our lives easy, as you wrote!
      It would really be wonderful to meet you the next time you'll have the chance to come to Italy for me too, that's sure ... I see, this time yours was a 'familiar trip'.
      Anyway, just know that whenever you'll ever wish, I'll know you with so much gladness and I'll be able to host you with much delight ... all the days you'll want!

      Sending blessings across the many miles,
      always thinking of you with love and gratitude ⊰✽*♥*✽⊱

  12. A fascinating read, Dany....thank you. We today are so blessed to have fresh water at our fingertips. I cannot imagine life all those years ago without the convenience of fresh water at our beck and call.

    1. @ Kim
      as you know when I got married I left Genoa and now I'm living in Tenuta Geremia, which is completely immerse in the nature, surrounded by meadows and woods ... here fresh water has arrived even later ... around the sixties of the last century!

      So glad to read that you loved this article of mine,
      I'm sending hugs and more hugs to you,
      you're such a good-and-sweet-hearted lady ♥♡♥

  13. Like my friend David, I too had similar thoughts. About your interest in British Birds too. I see now that you are a lady who is inquisitive, curious about all things past and present, even the waterworks of Victorian London!

    Have a lovely weekend Daniela.

    1. @ Phil Shade
      you said it, I'm truly inquisitive and curios in everything British and belonging to our past, my friend, I hope you enjoy what this love of mine to deepen so many topics dating back in time leads to ...

      Wishing you a lovely new week,
      I'm sending you all my best ღ❀ღ

  14. Ed anche questa volta mi hai stupita con un argomento interessante che non conoscevo. Grazie, romantica amica

    1. @ Alessandra
      ed io ti sono immensamente grata, ancora una volta, per la gioia che mi porti con le tue visite e le tue parole, grazie, grazie ancora!

      Ti abbraccio con il cuore
      augurandoti una splendida nuova settimana *•♥♥•*

  15. Amazing post Daniela. Informative one. Love and hugs Sujatha:)

    1. @ Sujatha
      I heartily thank you Dearie, you truly fill my heart!

      Wishing you a wonderful remainder of your week,
      I'm sending hugs and ever much love to you ❥

  16. What a great story. We are so lucky to have clean water today! Dickens was quite a character. Thanks for sharing at Vintage Charm. xo Kathleen|Our Hopeful Home

    1. @ Kathleen
      sweetest friend of mine, I also think that Dickens was such an interesting character, I'd have loved to know him ... truly!

      Wishing you a beautiful month of February,
      I'm sending blessings across the many miles ♡❤♡

  17. A great piece of British history right there, thanks for sharing it :)

    1. @ Jane
      you're so welcome, new friend of mine, thank you for your kind words!
      I'm following your so beautiful blog now and hope you'll enjoy doing the same with ~ My little old world ~, I would truly be honored by having you amongst my blog friends!

      Sending my very best wherever you are,
      with sincere gratitude ✿⊱╮

  18. ...Dany, the history that you taught me today! I'm amazed by all of this, thanks for sharing. Enjoy your week, I hope that you will return.

    1. @ Tom
      sweet friend, I'm so glad you loved it, you really bless this evening of mine ... and be sure, I'll return ツ!

      Wishing you a most beautiful day, today,
      and weekend ahead ⊰✽*♡*✽⊱

  19. I love reading how people approached new technology as it was being introduced. It is one thing after it has been accepted as part of the culture, it is another as it is challenging what people understood as common.

    1. @ Sheltie Times
      I heartily thank you for this visit of yours, your words of intereset fill my heart with joy, thank you once again!

      Sending you hugs and more hugs ಌ•❤•ಌ

  20. Hello, this is an interesting piece of history. I am thankful for all the inventors, they have made our life much easier. I for one would never take clean drinking water for granted. I appreciate your comment and visit. Thanks for sharing. Have a happy weekend.

    1. @ eileeninmd
      I thank you for gracing my blog today with the sweetness and the delicacy of your heart, dearest friend of mine, God bless!

      Wishing you a beautiful Sunday
      and new week ahead ༺♡❀♡༻

  21. Dani, I watched a documentary that detailed how the thousands of cases of Cholera in London, were traced back to a single water pump. You couldn't imagine it, could you. Mimi xxx

    1. @ Mimi
      I cannot believe it, this is the water pump you're talking about!

      With utmost gratitude for this so welcome visit of yours,
      cherished friend,
      I'm sending you all my love ♥♡♥

  22. Water is life! It is hard to believe that there are places in the world today that are still fighting for the issue of enough good water (even here in the United States).

  23. piacevole post cara dany , da leggere come diversivo alla domenica sera, prima di coricarsi con un buon infuso...
    t auguro una dolce settimana di fine inverno..