martedì 27 giugno 2017

VICTORIAN ETIQUETTE FOR A BALL-ROOM: rules for bachelor Gentlemen.


“Remember that a ball-room is a school of politeness, and therefore let your whole conduct be influenced by that strict regard to Etiquette such a place requires.”

Etiquette for Gentleman or the Principles of True Politeness, 1852.



The Woman of Fashion (La Mondaine), 1883 - 1885, James Tissot



Le sale da ballo, considerate come luogo privilegiato d'incontro, costituivano l'ambiente dove, per eccellenza, ogni Gentleman poteva esercitare la propria preparazione in fatto di cortesia, di etichetta, di abilità nelle danze e per quanto concerneva la classe media, era il luogo per eccellenza in cui dare mostra ed esibizione delle proprie attitudini in fatto di galateo, per essere alfine promossi appieno in società.

Essendoci ormai noto il rigore dei Victorians per i quali ogni ambito della vita, privata e sociale, era governato da regole, vediamo insieme le principali che dovevano essere essere tenute presenti per prendere parte ad un ballo nel rispetto della più raffinata galanteria:



RISPONDETE IMMEDIATAMENTE AD UN INVITO:

Non appena viene recapitato l'invito è buona norma rispondere con sollecitudine, sia che si desideri partecipare, sia che non si possa prender parte alla serata;



ABBIGLIATEVI IN MODO ADEGUATO ED UNA VOLTA VESTITI CERCATE CONFERMA IN UNA SECONDA OPINIONE CIRCA L'IDONEITA' DEL VOSTRO ASPETTO ALL'EVENTO:

Per recarsi in  una sala a ballo un Gentleman deve indossare un cappotto, un paio di stivaletti ed un tailleur, tutto nero, mentre i guanti, il panciotto e l'eventuale cravattino devono essere bianchi; i manuali di etichetta del tempo consigliavano, invece di consultare ripetutamente lo specchio, di chiedere un parere ad un membro della servitù o ad un conoscente.



QUANDO ARRIVATE, PORGETE I VOSTRI RISPETTI ALLE SIGNORE E NEL CASO IN CUI IL PARTY FOSSE IN CASA DI UN AMICO O DI UN PARENTE SIATE PRONTI A FARE IL VOSTRO DOVERE:

Se sono già presenti in sala delle signore, salutate con inchino ciascuna di loro e fate in modo che quella che più gradite vi garantisca il primo ballo e qualora il ballo avesse luogo in casa di un parente o in casa vostra, assicuratevi che ogni Lady abbia il proprio cavaliere.



MAI SEDERSI ACCANTO A LADIES CHE NON SI CONOSCONO:

Un vero Gentleman, con il dovuto consenso, si siede sempre accanto a Ladies che già conosce.



NON INIZIATE LE DANZE SE NON NE CONOSCETE I PASSI:

Il Gentleman ben educato danza solo se conosce bene le figure che il ballo comporta per non mettere a disagio la propria compagna, che altrimenti non saprebbe come comportarsi.



NON SCORAGGIATEVI MAI:

Danzate in estrema tranquillità ricordando che il ballo deve coinvolgere la parte del corpo che va dalla vita in giù, non fate l'errore di tenere il busto troppo in avanti o indietro e trasportate la vostra compagna con leggerezza come se dovesse muovere i propri passi su di una tela di ragno.



QUANDO DANZATE NON PENSATE A NULL'ALTRO CHE ALLA VOSTRA LADY:

Siate con lei una cosa sola e quando il ballo si è concluso offritele delle vivande fresche.



Rogelio de Egusquiza (1845 - 1915), The End of the Ball




GETTATE UN OCCHIO ANCHE ALLE 'WALLFLOWERS' (OSSIA ALLE LADIES CHE NON HANNO COMPAGNI E CHE FANNO 'DA TAPPEZZERIA').

Il vero Gentleman è colui che di tanto in tanto chiede un ballo anche alle ladies che non sono accompagnate.



QUANDO DANZATE NON SUSSURRATE ALL'ORECCHIO DELLA VOSTRA COMPAGNA E NON CALPESTATELE L'ABITO:

Nel primo caso assumereste l'aria di una persona misteriosa, nel secondo caso di un villano.



NON CHIEDETE TROPPO SPESSO LA COMPAGNIA DELLA STESSA LADY ANCHE SE E' LA VOSTRA PREFERITA:

Anche se è quella che più gradite, non private le altre del piacere della vostra compagnia.



SE IL VOSTRO INVITO VIENE RIFIUTATO, ACCETTATE TALE DECISIONE CON ESTREMA GRAZIA;

E se vi accade di vedere in sala la Lady che vi ha rifiutato danzare con un altro compagno fingete di ignorarla.



PRESTATE ATTENZIONE ALLE VOSTRE MANI QUANDO DANZATE IL WALTZER:

Le cingerete la vita, ma con grazia e non con forza sia per non farla sentire costretta sia per non darle un'impressione sbagliata.



QUANDO DANZATE LA QUADRIGLIA NON SIATE TROPPO ROZZO:

Non lasciatevi trasportare troppo dalla vitalità della danza, guidate la vostra compagna tenendole la mano, ma senza stringergliela troppo, affinché non vi ritenga un villano.



NON OFFRITEVI MAI DI RIACCOMPAGNARE UNA LADY ALLA PROPRIA DIMORA:

La obblighereste ad accettare !



The Ball, Charles Wilda (1854-1907) 




NON SIATE L'ULTIMO A LASCIARE LA SALA DA BALLO:

E' preferibile essere tra i primi ad abbandonare la scena piuttosto che dare agli altri l'impressione di non prender mai parte ad alcuna festa e di cercare perciò di trarre da questa il massimo diletto.




Queste erano le principali norme che un perfetto Gentleman, rispettoso dell'etichetta e delle buone maniere, doveva sempre tener presente ogni qualvolta varcava la soglia di una sala da ballo, dove, possiamo tutt'oggi presumere, questi spesso si recava o per fare conoscenze o per approfondirne altre, ma il rispetto dell'apparenza ed il mostrarsi riguardoso, misurato, compiacente e cavalleresco erano di sicuro le regole principali che dovevano tenere a freno gli impulsi amorosi !




Nella speranza di avervi fatto trascorrere in serenità 
qualche minuto in compagnia di ~ My little old world ~ 
vi abbraccio caramente ed altrettanto caramente vi saluto



a presto 💕










FONTI BIBLIOGRAFICHE:

Elizabeth Aldrich, From the Ballroom to Hell: Grace and Folly in Nineteenth-Century Dance, Northwestern University Press, 1991;

Charles Durang, The fashionable dancer's casket or, The ball-room instructor. A new and splendid work on dancing, etiquette, deportment, and the toilet, Fisher & Brothers, 1856;

Etiquette for Gentleman; or the Principles of True Politeness, Halifax, Milner and Sowerby, 1852;

Cecil B. Hartley, The Gentlemen's Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness, First Edition 1860, Hesperus Press Ltd; Reissue edition, 2014;


Thomas E. Hill, The Essential Handbook of Victorian Etiquette, Bluewood Book, 1994.









“Remember that a ball-room is a school of politeness, and therefore let your whole conduct be influenced by that strict regard to Etiquette such a place requires.”


Etiquette for Gentleman or the Principles of True Politeness, 1852.




- picture 1 - The Woman of Fashion (La Mondaine), 1883 - 1885, James Tissot



Ballrooms, considered as a privileged meeting place, were the setting where, for excellence, every gentleman could exercise his own preparation as for courtesy, good manners and dance skills and, for the middle class, it was the place in which to show and exhibit aptitudes in terms of etiquette, to be fully promoted into the society.
We well know the rigor of the Victorians for every area of ​​everyday life, both private and social, which was strictly governed by rules, so let's see together the principal ones that should be held present before than entering a ballroom in the respect of the finest gallantry:



RESPOND PROMPTLY TO INVITATIONS:

As soon as the invitation is delivered, it is a good rule to answer with solicitude, whether you would like to participate, or you are not able to attend the evening;



DRESS AS THE OCCASION REQUIRES AND ONCE DRESSED GET A SECOND OPINION ABOUT YOUR LOOK:

To go to a ballroom a Gentleman have to wear a black coat, a pair of black boots and a black suit, while the gloves, the waistcoat and the tie should have to be white; the manuals of Etiquette of the time suggested a good principle: instead of looking repeteadly at the mirror, ask an opinion to a member of the servitude or to an acquaintance about your aspect.




WHEN YOU ARRIVE, PAY YOUR OWN RESPECT TO THE LADIES AND IF THE PARTY IS HELD AT A FRIEND OR A RELATIVE'S HOME, BE READY TO DO YOUR DUTY:

If some ladies are already in the ballroom, pay your respect to each of them, bow deeply as you pass them and make sure that the one you like best will dance with you the first dance; if the ball takes place in a relative's home or at your home, make sure that each lady has her own Gentleman.



NEVER SIT DOWN BESIDES LADIES YOU DO NOT KNOW:


A true gentleman, with the due consent, always sits besides Ladies whom he already knows.



DO NOT START TO DANCE UNTIL YOU KNOW THE STEPS:

A well-bred Gentleman begins to dance only if he knows well the steps and the figures that the dance involves for not to make feel his partner uncomfortable and uneasy: she herself wouldn't know how to behave !



DO NOT KICK AND CAPER ABOUT:

Dance in extreme tranquility remembering that every dance involves the part of the body from the waist down, do not do the mistake of keeping your bust too forward or backward, and always carry your partner lightly as if she had to move her feet on a cobweb.



WHEN DANCING THINK NOTHING BUT YOUR LADY:

Imagine to be alone with your Lady and when the dance has ended up remember to offer her refreshments.




- picture 2 - Rogelio de Egusquiza (1845 - 1915 ), The End of the Ball




TAKE A LOOK TO WALLFLOWERS TOO.

A true Gentleman is the one who occasionally asks for a dance also to those ladies who are not accompanied.



WHEN YOU DANCE DO NOT WISPER TO YOUR LADY AND DO NOT  STEP OVER HER DRESS:

In the first case you would assume the air of a mysterious person, in the second case of a villain.




DO NOT FORGET THE OTHER'S LADY COMPANY - DON'T DANCE TOO OFTEN WITH THE SAME LADY EVEN  SHE'S YOUR FAVOURITE:

Though she's the one you most like, do not deprive the other Ladies of the pleasure of your company.



IF YOUR INVITATION IS REFUSED, ACCEPT THIS DECISION WITH EXTREME GENTLENESS;


And if you happen to see in the room the lady who refused to dance with you together with another fellow, just pretend to ignore her.



PAY ATTENTION AT YOUR HANDS WHILE YOU'RE DANCING THE WALTZER:

You will cripple your Lady's waist, but with grace and not with force, not to make her feel compelled or to give her a wrong impression.



WHEN YOU DANCE THE QUADRILLE, DON'T LOOK COARSE:

Do not be too enthusiastic about the dances, drive your companion by holding her hand, but without squeezing it too hard, so that you don't look like a villain.




NEVER ACCOMPANY A LADY BACK TO HER HOME:

You should force her to accept it !




- picture 3 - The Ball, Charles Wilda (1854-1907) 




DO NOT BE THE LAST TO LEAVE THE BALL ROOM:

It is preferable to be amongst the first to leave the scene rather than giving the others the impression that you never take part in any party and therefore you're trying to get the most out of this one.



These were the principal rules that a perfect, well educated and gallant Gentleman always had to keep in mind when he crossed the threshold of a ballroom, where, we can still assume, he often went to make new acquaintances or to meet someone he already knew, but the respect for appearance and to appear deferential, measured, compliant, and chivalrous were certainly the main rules to keep in mind !



In the hope of having presented you a few pleasants moments 
in the company of ~ My little old world ~ 
I embrace you so dearly and just as dearly I greet you,



see you soon 💕











BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES:


Elizabeth Aldrich, From the Ballroom to Hell: Grace and Folly in Nineteenth-Century Dance, Northwestern University Press, 1991;

Charles Durang, The fashionable dancer's casket or, The ball-room instructor. A new and splendid work on dancing, etiquette, deportment, and the toilet, Fisher & Brothers, 1856;

Etiquette for Gentleman; or the Principles of True Politeness, Halifax, Milner and Sowerby, 1852;

Cecil B. Hartley, The Gentlemen's Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness, First Edition 1860, Hesperus Press Ltd; Reissue edition, 2014;


Thomas E. Hill, The Essential Handbook of Victorian Etiquette, Bluewood Book, 1994.

















46 commenti:

  1. I love the rules. It's as is should be. Excellent post.

    Have a fabulous day, Dany. ♥♥♥

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Sandee
      I thank you from the bottom of my heart, Dearest One !

      Sending blessings across the miles ♡❤♡

      Elimina
  2. Fascinating! Now i wonder if the ladies had even stricter rules regarding their behavior.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ messymimi
      you're so heartily welcome, sweetest friend of mine !
      Of course, there were rules also for the ladies, both as hostess and as guests, and I'm thinking to make of it the topic of a post of mine in the future ... in the hope you'd love it too :) !

      Wishing you a most lovely remainder of your Sunday,
      I'm sending hugs and ever much love to you ✿⊱╮

      Elimina
  3. So amazing, dear Daniela, and the images and costumes are gorgeous! Thank you so much for all you share, my cherished friend.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Linda
      I'm sincerely grateful to you, dear, dearest friend, for being so loving, so adorable and so supportive, your words of appreciation never fail to bless my heart !

      With utmost thankfulness
      I'm sending all my love to you,
      may it accompany you for what remains of this Sunday
      and for the begin of the new week to come, Sweetie ⊰✽*♥*✽⊱

      Elimina
  4. I think all of these are pretty applicable to today's social gatherings, too! A wonderful find. I especially liked this one:

    DRESS AS THE OCCASION REQUIRES AND ONCE DRESSED GET A SECOND OPINION ABOUT YOUR LOOK:

    Oh, yes, don't you wish they'd do that?! Thanks, Dany, for a delightful post!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Jeanie
      it's always such a delight to welcome you here, Dearie, you're my ray of cheerful sun !

      So thankful for the inner joy you always bring here,
      and for your nice and kind words, of course,
      I'm sending my dearest love, hugs and blessings to you ❥

      Elimina
  5. bellissime queste foto, meravigliose!
    buona giornata
    simona

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ simona
      che gioia averti qui, mia cara, mi sei mancata !

      Ringraziandoti con tutto il cuore
      ti auguro una splendida serata d'estate ♡ஐ♡

      Elimina
  6. cara dany
    non ho mai amato le discoteche credimi, invece ho sempre invidiato le sale da ballo,tutto il loro cerimoniale preciso e misterioso dell epoca vittoriana..ah come avrei voluto parteciparvi:) deliziosi i dettagli che ci hai presentato,
    ti auguro una splendida giornata
    daniela

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ daniela
      buongiorno mia cara e grazie infinite per quest tua deliziosa visita !
      In effetti esiste una differenza abissale tra le discoteche e le sale da ballo, soprattutto quelle appartenenti all'epoca vittoriana, che erano luoghi in cui mostrare il meglio di sé in quanto ad educazione e galanteria ... eh, non immagini quanto anche io avrei voluto partecipare ad almeno uno di quei sontuosi balli .... se ci penso mi sembra persino di sentire il fruscio degli abiti delle ladies che si muovevano adoperando il massimo riguardo, soprattutto durante l'epoca in cui era in voga la crinolina :) !!!

      Ti abbraccio tanto caramente ringraziandoti ancora
      ed augurandoti un lieto prosieguo di settimana ಌ•❤•ಌ

      Elimina
  7. Such romantic rules of etiquette. Today's men could take a note. :) Have a wonderful week!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Decore To Adore
      it's always such a delight to welcome you here, Dearest Laura !!!

      Sincerely pleased by reading your words of appreciation,
      I'm sending blessings of joy on your day, today,
      and on your days to come,
      may they be filled with love and smiles !

      Oh, I was forgetting to wish you a Happy 4th of July ❀≼♥≽❀

      Elimina
  8. Bellissimo posto, pieno di curiosità.
    Grazie, come sempre Dany, per averlo condiviso.
    Ti abbraccio

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Manu
      sei sempre così tanto gentile e generosa, carissima !

      Ti invio il mio più dolce abbraccio per ringraziarti
      ed augurarti una splendida giornata d'estate ✿⋰⋱✿

      Elimina
  9. La tua compagnia è sempre molto piacevole. Anche questo post mi ha incantata e catapultata in tempi lontani tanto romantici come piacciono a me
    Bacioni Alessandra

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Alessandra
      credimi, piacevolissima anche la tua, e sempre lusinghiera, il tuo entusiasmo e la passione che condividiamo per un'epoca che entrambe a nostro modo cerchiamo di ricondurre in vita mi colmano il cuore di gioia !

      Contraccambio con tutto il cuore i tuoi bacioni, mia dolce *•♥♥•*

      Elimina
  10. So very interesting....and really, not too far off from the etiquette of ballroom dancing today. I met my [now] husband in a social ballroom dance environment nearly 20 years ago, and these were/are the social norms even today (except, perhaps, getting a second opinion of attire). ;)
    Rita C at Panoply

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Rita C.
      you're so heartily welcome, and your words so very interesting, thank you for taking the time for visiting and for writing your comment, I appreciate it so, so much !

      Sending you my dearest hug ♡ஐ♡

      Elimina
  11. Oh Dany che bellezza, che gioia ogni volta passare da te anche se di fretta ma non resisto e soffermarmi su questi splendidi quadri mi rende felice. Un abrazo desde Madrid🤗💓

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ WOODY
      non immagini la gioia che mi comunichi tu, mia cara, con le tue bellissime parole !

      Buona vacanza, dolcissima amica mia,
      ti auguro di trascorrere giorni lieti e spensierati,
      grazie ancora e sempre ❥

      Elimina
  12. I'm so glad we don't have to remember so many rules these days. Although it would be nice to have a few still attended to! Balance, rather than extremes would be nice! For some reason I'm not getting the email notification of your new posts, which I signed up for. :( I pray you're having a blessed summer, my dear friend!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ June Caedmon
      I'm sincerely sorry to read that you're not receiving the updates of my blog-posts and, please, forgive my absence from your blog, I'm writing my first book and I'm quite busy lately, it's not easy to find the time for everything I'd love to ... I'm sure I've your understanding Dearie !

      Trusting you also are enjoying a most lovely Sunmmer,
      I'm wishing you a Happy 4th of July,
      sending all my love to you •♥•*Ƹ̴Ӂ̴Ʒ*•♥•

      Elimina
  13. Ciao cara Dany! I love your fascinate posts! Those rules were simply amazing! The pictures a really delight! It's always a pleasure be here!
    Hope you’re having a great week!
    Hugs and love from Portugal,
    Ana

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Ana
      ciao mia dolcissima amica !
      Your words are too beautiful to me, I don't deserve all your so lovely words of praise, Sweetie ;)!

      Snding blessings across the miles,
      with utmost thankfulness,
      I've been missing you so ღ❀ღ

      Elimina
  14. Very interesting I did not know these things. My favorite line is do not deprive the other ladies of the pleasure of your company. In the movies it seems like they always danced with the ones they liked, I think it is nice that they would dance with everyone, that way no one would feel left out. They must have really had to watch the way they behaved or the would be thought a villain or who knows what.
    Wishing you a fabulous weekend ahead!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Conniecrafter
      I always feel so raptured by your comments, they never fail to catch my attention, Dearie, your words of interest and appreciation mean so much to me and never fail to bless my heart !

      Wishing you a Happy 4th of July,
      sending blessings to you and yours,
      ♥♡♥ with utmost gratitude ♥♡♥

      Elimina
  15. each of these paintings tells such a story! i got a kick out of reading the rules for proper behavior. this was fun to read. wishing you a lovely day Dany! xo from michele

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Michele
      beloved friend of mine, I feel so blessed by this visit of yours, I heartily thank you for your kind and nice words !

      Sending hugs and ever much love to you,
      from the very bottom of my heart ♥¸.•*´¨`*•.♥

      Elimina
  16. Admiring the commitment you put into your website and detailed
    information you provide. It's awesome to come across a blog every once in a while that isn't the same
    outdated rehashed information. Wonderful read! I've saved your site and I'm including your
    RSS feeds to my Google account.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Anonimo
      I'm sincerely honoured by your words touching my heart in the deep and moving me, I don't know how to thank you for such a gift !

      Sending all my best to you, my new, sweet friend,
      wherever you are ✿⊱╮

      Elimina
  17. So many rules ... interesting !
    Thanks for this wonderful post, dear Dany !
    And thanks so much for your comforting words about my sweet Moesj ...
    Hope you're having a nice weekend,
    hugs to you sweet friend !
    Sylvia

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Sylvia
      Dearie, you really needn't to thank me, I would have preferred not to have to write such words of solace, it's so sad to loose such a companion ... I know your kind of pain, and I also know that you need much time and patience to be able and accept it ... I hug you ... so, so strong !

      With so much thankfulness
      I'm sending all my love to you ༺♡❀♡༻

      Elimina
  18. So interesting and romantic, Dani! Thank you for sharing @Vintage Charm!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ My thrift store addiction
      it's my pleasure and delight, sweet Cecilia, indeed, thank you for visiting and for commenting !

      Sending blessings on your 4th of July,
      with sincere gratitude ❥

      Elimina
  19. Interesting to spotlight the gentleman in this case, as it is so often the lady's behavior that was addressed. I thought of the one stipulation - do not step over her dress, I wonder if that was a difficult rule considering the enormity of the dresses they wore at that time! Always learn something new, and what a joy to visit you dear Dany! Hugs and blessings!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Marilyn
      I feel so overjoyed by this visit of yours, dear, dearest, precious friend of mine, blessed be !

      You're so right, I also think that the rule you noticed and underline was the most difficult to observe, especially when it was in vogue the crinoline, gowns were so, so wide, a man had always to watch the floor and keep down his head, oh my !

      Wishing you a most lovely 4th of July,
      sending all my love to you
      with utmost thankfulness ♥∗✿*✿∗♥

      Elimina
  20. Dany che meraviglia questo post! Ma..ancora mi stupisco? Suvvia, dovrei essere avvezza a leggere cose interessanti ed estremamente piacevoli ;)
    Mi ha colpito molto quel "Non scoraggiatevi mai!"
    Un grande abbraccio e buon Luglio
    Susanna

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Susanna
      sei davvero un'adulatrice, mia cara !

      Ti abbraccio con il cuore
      contraccambiando con gioia il tuo bellissimo augurio ✻ღღ✻

      Elimina
  21. Another great history lesson! Thanks for joining Blue Monday!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Magical Mystical Teacher
      you're such a loving hostess, sweetest friend of mine, it's my pleasure, believe me !

      Wishing you a Happy 4th of July,
      sending hugs, love and blessings to you •♥•♥•♥•

      Elimina
  22. Dany, I am fascinated by etiquette of the past, so this post made me very happy! Thank you for bringing history alive in such a beautiful way!

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Jean
      Dearest One, your words of amusement fill my heart to overflowing, thank you for the deep joy you've presented me !!!

      In the hope you're enjoying a lovely Sunday,
      I'm sending my dearest love to you,
      always thinking of you with love and gratitude ♡❤♡

      Elimina
  23. I loved reading this, Dany! They sure had lots of rules, didn't they. I wonder what would happen if one or more were forgotten??? :-)

    Thank you for sharing, sweet friend.
    Sending you hugs from across the ocean.
    xo.

    RispondiElimina
    Risposte
    1. @ Lisa
      Dearest One, it's always such a blessing having you here !

      Oh, if you forgot one of more of the rules which the etiquette prescribed, well you were instantly noticed and marked as a lout and impolite, that wasn't for sure the best image of yourself you could offer to the people present !

      It is I who wish to thank you, wholehertedly, Sweetie, your friendship is so precious to me !

      ⊰♥⊱ MUCH LOVE ⊰♥⊱

      Elimina

I WHOLEHEARTEDLY THANK YOU FOR YOUR THOUGHTS AND WORDS, SO PRECIOUS TO ME.